//Chemistry : Bromine - What it is, how to extract it, what it’s used for

On an industrial scale, it’s harder to extract bromine in this way. Instead there is a more complex process:

  1. Partially evaporate acidified sea water is warmed. (Sea water is slightly alkaline so this lowers the pH - sulphuric acid is used - as chlorine and bromine react better with water at higher pH levels.)
  2. Chlorine is added. This is to displace bromine from the bromide ions in the sea water.
  3. As bromine is very volatile, it evaporates and gives off bromine and water vapours when steam is blown through the reaction chamber.
  4. The vapours condense into two immiscible layers.
  5. The denser bromine layer is run off of the water layer above it. 
  6. This impure bromine is distilled and dried.

In addition, bromine has several uses once it has been distilled and dried. Bromine is used in the production of analgesics and sedatives. Silver bromide is also used in camera films.

//Electron Subshells//

(image from http://chemistry.compendiarious.net)

// Human Digestive System (Part One)//

(diagram from wikipedia.org)

//Iodine//

(Photo from wikipedia.org)

fuckyeahfluiddynamics:

Two jets of sugar syrup collide and interact to form very different patterns.  On the left, the two jets have a low flow rate and create a chain-like wake.  The jets on the right have a higher flow rate and produce a liquid sheet that breaks down into filaments and droplets. The result is often likened to fish bones. (Photo credit: Rebecca Ing)

fuckyeahfluiddynamics:

Two jets of sugar syrup collide and interact to form very different patterns.  On the left, the two jets have a low flow rate and create a chain-like wake.  The jets on the right have a higher flow rate and produce a liquid sheet that breaks down into filaments and droplets. The result is often likened to fish bones. (Photo credit: Rebecca Ing)

skepttv:

One Step Closer to The Bionic Man

A shark attack survivor now knows what it feels like to be part bionic man. Twenty-three-year-old amputee Craig Hutto has volunteered to test a state-of-the-art prosthetic leg with powered knee and ankle joints.

(Source: youtube.com, via skeptv)

rocketdigital:

Small asteroid 2012 BX34 skimmed past Earth today, January 27, 2012,  with closest approach at about 15:25 UT, and it passed only about 59,044  km (36,750 miles) or about ~0.2 lunar distance (or 0.0004 AU) above the  Earth’s surface.  It was discovered just a few days ago by the Catalina  Sky Survey in Arizona.
Above is an animation created by image  from Ernesto Guido, Giovanni Sostero & Nick Howes from the  Remanzacco Observatory in Italy. However, they took this series of  images remotely from the GRAS Observatory, near Mayhill, New Mexico,  using a 0.10-m f/5 reflector + CCD.

rocketdigital:

Small asteroid 2012 BX34 skimmed past Earth today, January 27, 2012, with closest approach at about 15:25 UT, and it passed only about 59,044 km (36,750 miles) or about ~0.2 lunar distance (or 0.0004 AU) above the Earth’s surface. It was discovered just a few days ago by the Catalina Sky Survey in Arizona.

Above is an animation created by image from Ernesto Guido, Giovanni Sostero & Nick Howes from the Remanzacco Observatory in Italy. However, they took this series of images remotely from the GRAS Observatory, near Mayhill, New Mexico, using a 0.10-m f/5 reflector + CCD.

cwnl:

All-Sky Milky Way
Copyright: processing Lorenzo Comolli, images Lorenzo Comolli, Luigi Fontana, Giosuè Ghioldi, Emmanuele Sordini
This single image is able to show the entire sky, thanks to the truly dark sky of the Namibian savanna and to the absence of mountains. Only some small trees from the Tivoli farm are visible toward West.

cwnl:

All-Sky Milky Way

Copyright: processing Lorenzo Comolli, images Lorenzo Comolli, Luigi Fontana, Giosuè Ghioldi, Emmanuele Sordini

This single image is able to show the entire sky, thanks to the truly dark sky of the Namibian savanna and to the absence of mountains. Only some small trees from the Tivoli farm are visible toward West.

(Source: afro-dominicano)

smithsonianmag:

The Highest Resolution Image of Earth Ever

This composite image uses a number of swaths of the Earth’s surface taken on January 4, 2012.

Photo courtesy of NASA/NOAA/GSFC/Suomi NPP/VIIRS/Norman Kuring
Ed note: Perfect for your desktop background. Click the photo for the 8000x8000 image. Check out our article on the previous photo titled The Blue Marble.
h/t Gizmodo

smithsonianmag:

The Highest Resolution Image of Earth Ever

This composite image uses a number of swaths of the Earth’s surface taken on January 4, 2012.

Photo courtesy of NASA/NOAA/GSFC/Suomi NPP/VIIRS/Norman Kuring

Ed note: Perfect for your desktop background. Click the photo for the 8000x8000 image. Check out our article on the previous photo titled The Blue Marble.

h/t Gizmodo

(via smithsonianmag)

unknownskywalker:

Mars by Rosetta
On February 24, 2007, the ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft passed by Mars, the second of four planetary gravity-assist flybys on its long way to a 2014 rendezvous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenkoy, getting close enough to take some very detailed pictures. That data wasn’t initially released by the mission leader, but they were finally made available late last year, including this frame-filling photo of Mars that Rosetta took as it approached the planet, using its main science camera, OSIRIS.

unknownskywalker:

Mars by Rosetta

On February 24, 2007, the ESA’s Rosetta spacecraft passed by Mars, the second of four planetary gravity-assist flybys on its long way to a 2014 rendezvous with comet Churyumov-Gerasimenkoy, getting close enough to take some very detailed pictures. That data wasn’t initially released by the mission leader, but they were finally made available late last year, including this frame-filling photo of Mars that Rosetta took as it approached the planet, using its main science camera, OSIRIS.